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color systems

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• history of the color wheel

• color schemes and color palettes

• Pantone Matching System

• Munsell System

• other color systems




• history of the color wheel    

from The Creation of Color in Eighteenth-Century Europe by Sarah Lowengard.

LINK Color Systems and Systemization

image: Ignaz Schiffermüller, color circle, 1772

Toutes les choses visibles se distinguent ou se rendent desirable par la couleur.
— Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Instruction général pour la teinture…



LINK History of the Color Wheel by evad

the author, evad, of this article is referencing the above document by Sarah Lowengard.

condensed, it provides a good visual overview.


from Google:

LINK history of the color wheel timeline
a visual timeline chart. there are a bevy of links, only many are out of date. best to use this just as is.


from Color Vision & Art

LINK Newton and the Color Spectrum
Our modern understanding of light and color begins with Isaac Newton (1642-1726) and a series of experiments that he publishes in 1672.


from University of Wisconsin
2D Design (Art 107)

LINK Color Wheels & Color Systems
covers basic concepts and describes Prang Artist's Color System: the bases for the Red, Yellow, Blue system.


from Von Löwen Designs

Link the antiquity of colour / timeline



from wondering mood

LINK colour wheel & colour systems timeline


from wikipedia

LINK color wheel




• color schemes & color palettes


from public iowa state university /
college of design

LINK color theory - art vs



from Adobe

Adobe Kuler
Kuler is an internet application from Adobe Systems that lets individuals try out, create and save various color schemes.


from coloraday.com - april, 2010

LINK widgets & apps
a select list of a few of the multitude of color concept and theory widgets and apps available for computers, cell phones and other portable devices.


from emotions greeting cards museum

LINK Louis prang, master printer and educator
his work as a color printer and publisher, educator and “helped elevate the custom of card sending to an art”. prang developed the developed a color wheel that is the standard red, yellow & blue arrangement of primary colors.


from colorjack / software

LINK colorjack software and color theory information
colorjack website covers their software: color galaxy, color sphere, piano theory and open software products on color. much to do with color palettes, color scheme and other color system concepts.



from nick spencer design

LINK principals of color theory / harmonies and complements


from malanenewman colorseries

LINK color theory & the color wheel


from sensational color

LINK picking perfect colors & outdoor living
(interior & exterior design)

LINK paint company guide

LINK interior inspiration
(interior and fashion design)



from wikipedia

LINK color scheme




• Pantone Matching Systems

from PANTONE / Color Think Tank

LINK pantone/color think tank
warning: the pantone site is especially robust and complex. trying to find what you are targeting takes time. this particular part of pantone give you links to color fundamentals and more. I will refer back to this site for other color topics.

LINK what are other ways to define color



to access mypantone, you are required to register. pantone is a commercial product/service and setting up a membership is a marketing stradigy. it does has many nice perks: mostly used to develop your own palette and has tips & technique, community connections and much more.


from PANTONE / About Us

LINK pantone/about us
starting with “what we do” and “who we are”, this part of the pantone site give you some timeline and general facts about the company.


from wikipedia

LINK pantone





• Munsell System    

from Munsell / Universal Language of Color

LINK munsellcolor
this is the commercial munsell website with a direct link to the munsell products/color education products part of their site. munsell systems is now owned by X-Rite, the global leader in color science and technology. BTW X-Rite also own Pantone: on the NASDAQ exchange, symbol: XRIT


from Munsell Color Science Laboratory

LINK munsell color science laboratory
the munsell color science laboratory is affliated with the rochester institute of technology. the academic laboratory is dedicated to color science education and research. on this site is a link to read about prof. albert h. munsell (1858-1918), artist, teacher and color theorist. he developed the first widely-accepted color order system.
LINK to about prof. albert h. munsel


from Chemical Heritage Foundation / Icons of Science - A Colorful Life

Link chemical heritage foundation on the life of prof. albert h. munsell
this article provides a timeline description of munsell's life and work.


from wikipedia

LINK munsell color system



• Other Color Systems    

from sensational color

LINK Paint Company Guide


from wondering mood

LINK colour wheel & colour systems timeline
colour wheels and colour systems by
• aron sigfrid forsius, finnish astronomer
• isaac newton, english physicist, mathematician, astronomer
• tobias mayer, german astronomer and mathematician
• moses harris, english entomologist and engraver
• michel eugène chevreul, chemist and director of carpet manufacturer, gobelin.
• johann wolfgang von goethe, german poet, dramatist, novelist, and scientist
• phillip otto runge, german painter
• johannes itten, swiss painter, textile designer, teacher, writer
• ogden nicholas rood, american physicist
• RGB model